Variability of Materials

Variability of Materials It is essential to understand that engineering materials are inherently variable. For example, steel properties vary depending on chemical composition and method of manufacture. Concrete properties change depending on type and amount of cement, type of aggregate, air content, slump, method of curing, etc. The properties of Read more…

Earthquakes

An earthquake is a sudden, rapid shaking of the earth surface caused by the breaking and shifting of rocks beneath. During earthquake, ground motion occurs in a random fashion in all directions radiating from a point within earth crust, called epicentre. It causes vibrations of structures and induces inertia forces Read more…