Civil Engineering Materials

Civil Engineering Materials

Design and Production of Bituminous Materials

Bituminous Mixtures There are a very large number of bituminous mixtures, which vary according to density, bitumen content, bitumen grade, aggregate size and aggregate grading. Previously in the UK these mixtures used to be classified into two groups, namely ‘asphalts’ and ‘macadams’. The move to European standardisation has meant that bituminous mixtures are now classified […]

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Civil Engineering Materials

Atomic Structure of Elements & Bonding

Atomic Structure of Elements Atoms, the building block of elements, consist of a nucleus surrounded by a cloud of orbiting electrons. The nucleus consists of positively charged protons and neutral neutrons, and so has a net positive charge that holds the negatively charged electrons, which revolve around it, in position by an electrostatic attraction. The

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